The sight is a complex function, which is implemented through the close and mutual cooperation of the perceptive sensory system with the central nervous system. Over 90% of human cognitive experience is based on the sight. The information got by the eyes is transmitted through the optic nerve and acquired by the brain, which processes it and create an interpretative reconstruction. Numerous clinical conditions, even rare, can modify the visual spatial analysis. To make a proper diagnosis, it is therefore mandatory the use of the most advanced diagnostic technologies. A separate chapter is reserved to specific learning disabilities (SLD). The Ophthalmologist today plays a major role, as well as all other professionals involved, in their diagnosis and treatment.